Documentation of Model Methodology

The development of the methodology employed in the European version of the GAINS model - and its forerunner RAINS - has been extensively documented in a series of reports.

The GAINS model combines all the features and input data of the RAINS model for the six air pollutants with the same analyses for the six greenhouse gases. This web site provides access to documentation of the model methodology. Latest input data can be downloaded from the GAINS-online web site.

The most recent description of the GAINS integrated assessment framework is given in the journal article:

  • Amann M, Bertok I, Borken-Kleefeld J, Cofala J, Heyes C, Höglund-Isaksson L, Klimont Z, Nguyen B, Posch M, Rafaj P, Sandler R, Schöpp W, Wagner F, Winiwarter W. (2011) Cost-effective control of air quality and greenhouse gases in Europe: Modeling and policy applications. Environmental Modelling & Software, 26(12):1489-1501 (December 2011) (Published online 15 September 2011) [doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2011.07.012]

GAINS documentation

The following reports provide details of aspects of the model methodology specific to the GAINS model:

  • Höglund-Isaksson L.,  Winiwarter W.,  Klimont Z.,  Bertok I. (2006)  Emission Scenarios for methane and Nitrous Oxides from the Agricultural Sector in the EU-25. IIASA Interim Report IR-06-019.
  • Klaassen G., Berglund C., Wagner F. (2005) The GAINS model for Greenhouse Gases - Version 1.0: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) IIASA Interim Report IR-05-53
  • Höglund-Isaksson L. and Mechler R. (2005) The GAINS model for Greenhouse Gases - Version 1.0 : Methane (CH4) IIASA Interim Report IR-05-54
  • Winiwarter W. (2005) The GAINS model for Greenhouse Gases - Version 1.0: nitrous oxide (N2O) IIASA Interim Report IR-05-55
  • Tohka A. (2005) The GAINS model for Greenhouse Gases - Version 1.0: HFC, PFC and SF6. IIASA Interim Report IR-05-56
  • Klaassen, G., Amann, M., Berglund, C., Cofala, J., Höglund-Isaksson, L., Heyes, C., Mechler, R., Tohka, A., Schöpp, W., Winiwarter, W. (2004) The Extension of the RAINS model to Greenhouse Gases. An interim report describing the state of work as of April 2004. IIASA Interim Report IR-04-015.
  • Höglund-Isaksson L. and Mechler R. (2004) The GAINS model for Greenhouse Gases: Emissions, Control Potentials and Control Costs for Methane. IIASA Interim Report IR-04-078

The GAINS model was peer reviewed in 2007.

RAINS documentation

Documentation of the RAINS model approach for the air pollutants:

  • Amann M. (2004) The RAINS model. Documentation of the model approach prepared for the RAINS peer review 2004.
  • More on-line material has been prepared for the scientific peer review of the RAINS model.
  • Input data have been reviewed in two series of bilateral consultations between experts from countries and stakeholders and the IIASA modelling team for the CAFE programme in 2004 and the revision of the NEC directive in 2006.

The following documentation is available:

  • Wagner F., Schöpp W., Heyes C. (2006) The RAINS optimization module for the Clean Air For Europe (CAFE) Programmme. IIASA Interim Report IR-06-029.
  • Kupiainen K. and Klimont Z. (2004) Primary Emissions of Submicron and Carbonaceous Particles in Europe and the Potential for their Control. IIASA Interim Report IR-04-079.
  • Klimont Z. and Brink C. (RIVM) (2004) Modelling of Emissions of Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases from Agricultural Sources in Europe. IIASA Interim Report IR-04-048.
  • Klimont Z., Cofala J., Bertok I., Amann M., Heyes C. and Gyarfas F. (2002) Modelling Particulate Emissions in Europe A Framework to Estimate Reduction Potential and Control Costs. IIASA Interim Report IR-02-076
  • Mechler, R., Amann, M. and Schöpp, W. (2002) A methodology to estimate changes in statistical life expectancy due to the control of particulate matter air pollution. IIASA Interim Report IR-02-035.
  • Suutari R., Amann M., Cofala J., Klimont Z., Posch M. (CCE/RIVM) and Schöpp W. (2001). From Economic Activities to Ecosystem Protection in Europe. An Uncertainty Analysis of Two Scenarios of the RAINS Integrated Assessment Model. EMEP CIAM/CCE Report 1/2001, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
  • Klimont, Z., Cofala J., Amann M. (2000) Estimating Costs for Controlling Emissions of volatile organic compounds ( VOC) from Stationary Sources in Europe. IIASA Interim Report, IR-00-51.
  • Forsund F. (Economics University of Oslo)(2000) An Economic Interpretation of the Compensation Mechanism in the RAINS model. IIASA Interim Report IR-00-036.
  • Posch M.(CCE/RIVM) (1999) The Use of Critical Load Databases in RAINS: Methodology to Calculate Exceedances and Gap Closure - A Summary
  • Makowski M., Heyes C., Schöpp W. (1998) The Mathematical Formulation of the Ozone Optimization Problem in RAINS. A mathematical description of the non-linear optimization problem. IIASA Technical Note 1998.
  • Cofala J., Syri S. (1998) Sulfur Emissions, Abatement Technologies and Related Costs for Europe in the RAINS model Database. IIASA Interim Report IR-98-035 (update 19.10.1998).
  • Cofala J., Syri S. (1998) Nitrogen Oxides Emissions, Abatement Technologies and Related Costs for Europe in the RAINS Model Database. IIASA Interim Report IR-98-088.
  • Heyes C., Schöpp W., Amann M., Unger S. (1996) A 'Reduced-Form' Model to Predict Long-Term Ozone Concentrations in Europe. A technical description of the early version of the 'reduced-form' model for ozone formation in Europe. IIASA Working Paper WP-96-012.

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Last edited: 30 April 2017

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