The 1999 Gothenburg Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone 

With the multi-pollutant/multi-effect concept of its RAINS model, IIASA provided structure to the negotiations on emission ceilings for SO2, NOx, VOC and NH3 that lead to significant improvements for acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone.  

  • UN/ECE Web site for the Gothenburg Protocol
  • A report prepared by IIASA for the Netherlands Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, documenting the main scenarios used during the negotiations and the resulting Protocol. A brochure describing the aims of the Protocol
  • Presentation slides showing the environmental impacts calculated for the Protocol
  • Information about a video on the effects of acidification is available from the Netherlands Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment.

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Last edited: 23 June 2014


Markus Amann

Senior Research Scholar

Pollution Management Research Group

T +43(0) 2236 807 432

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
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Phone: (+43 2236) 807 0 Fax:(+43 2236) 71 313