Population structure and dynamics are directly interlinked with economic development. The new Fact Sheet Economic Demography developed by researchers from IIASA and the Wittgenstein Centre puts the economic consequences of demographic changes into perspective, showing a realistic picture of challenges and opportunities in the future.

Declining birth rates and the resulting long-term drop in the labor force, ageing populations and the associated increase in welfare spending, an outflow of the working-age population, migration, and refugee movements, to name only a few, all impact the economy. The links are often complex and many changes in the population and age structure create uncertainties and new challenges for the economic system. A closer look at the economic consequences of the demographic changes shows, however, that general pessimism about the future is not justified, because knowledge about these changes will provide new options for adaptation and opportunities.


girl in lockdown looking out of the window

05 September 2022

Lessons learned from COVID-19 mitigation measures

Due to the uncertainty of the timing of vaccine approval at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, policymakers struggled to find the best mitigation measures. In a new study, researchers analyzed how the expectation of a vaccine influences optimal lockdown measures.
World map overview of virus infected regions.

08 March 2022

Understanding modern infectious diseases and their impacts

Curbing or even containing a pandemic breakout like COVID-19 almost always implies unpalatable choices between lost lives and livelihoods. The authors of a new study just published in the Journal of Economic Literature set out to better understand the impacts and trade-offs policymakers must consider when addressing modern infectious diseases and their macroeconomic repercussions.