Population structure and dynamics are directly interlinked with economic development. The new Fact Sheet Economic Demography developed by researchers from IIASA and the Wittgenstein Centre puts the economic consequences of demographic changes into perspective, showing a realistic picture of challenges and opportunities in the future.

Declining birth rates and the resulting long-term drop in the labor force, ageing populations and the associated increase in welfare spending, an outflow of the working-age population, migration, and refugee movements, to name only a few, all impact the economy. The links are often complex and many changes in the population and age structure create uncertainties and new challenges for the economic system. A closer look at the economic consequences of the demographic changes shows, however, that general pessimism about the future is not justified, because knowledge about these changes will provide new options for adaptation and opportunities.


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