01 November 2014
Impact Sheet #1, November 2014. Arctic temperatures have risen at twice the global average rate over the last 40 years. In recent years, concerns arose that the warming from short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), like methane, tropospheric ozone, and especially black carbon, might be greater than that of CO2. In 2009 the intergovernmental Arctic Council asked IIASA to investigate the effects of SLCFs in the Arctic using its Greenhouse gas – Air pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model.