Verification Time (VT) Concept

The issue of verifying uncertain net GHG emission changes (emission signals) under the Kyoto Protocol is not yet resolved.

To address this issue, dual-constrained verification of emissions, based on bottom-up and top-down Full Carbon Accounting (FCA), as well as temporal analysis of emission changes, here based on the detection of emission signals, have to be taken into account.

This Excel file is made available on the Internet to satisfy scientific and educational purposes. It is meant for experts as well as for students, who want to get acquainted with the issue of temporal verification (more generally: detection) of GHG emission signals under the Kyoto Protocol.

The Excel file is based on the study by Hudz (IIASA Interim Report IR-02-066), which introduces a probabilistic based VT concept advancing the deterministic VT concept of IIASA’s ESM Program and which provides the scientific and numerical background for the file.

This Excel file should be cited as:

Hudz, H., M. Jonas, T. Ermolieva, R. Bun, Y. Ermoliev and S. Nilsson, 2003: Verification times underlying the Kyoto Protocol: Consideration of risk. Background data for IR-02-066. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria. Available at: 

This IIASA Study has been financially supported by the Austrian Exchange Service and the Swedish National Member Organization to IIASA. The IIASA Forestry Project gratefully acknowledges their support.

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Last edited: 22 July 2013


Matthias Jonas

Senior Research Scholar

Exploratory Modeling Of Human-Natural Systems Research Group

T +43(0) 2236 807 430

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
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Phone: (+43 2236) 807 0 Fax:(+43 2236) 71 313